The environmental impact of fracking
Nevertheless, many of the health risks from the toxins used during the fracking process do not express themselves immediately, and require studies looking into long-term health effects.
Positive effects of fracking
The water being released from the plant was not tested for radiation levels. Though the industry has attempted to obscure evidence of well water contamination by fracking, multiple instances have come to light. Stephen G. In many instances, companies who bought products off the shelf did not know the ingredients. EPA estimated that 70 to billion gallons of water were used to fracture just 35, wells in the United States, more than was used by the city of Denver, Colorado in the same time period. Existing water treatment plants were "grandfathered," and still allowed higher discharge concentrations, but oil and gas operators were prohibited to send wastewater to the grandfathered treatment plants. The facility denied processing Marcellus waste since In western states like Texas and Colorado, over 3. Tom Corbett has said it is "total fiction" that untreated wastewater is being discharged into the state's waterways,  though it has been observed that Corbett received over a million dollars in gas industry contributions,  more than all his competitors combined, during his election campaign. Encana is funding the alternate water supplies. Further research is needed to identify both carcinogenic potential of chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing and their cancer risk. The Department noted that there were operational Class II disposal wells in the state, and that the Youngstown well was the first to produce recorded earthquakes since Ohio's Underground Injection Control program began in Using a more precise isotopic analysis, they showed that the methane found in the water wells came from both the formations where hydraulic fracturing occurred, and from the shallower formations. Contamination of Water Wells and Gas Migration One of the gravest threats posed by fracking is the contamination of drinking water wells, vital sources of water for many rural communities. Of nine oil and gas-producing states studied in , underground injection disposal was by far the predominant method in all but Pennsylvania where were only six active waste disposal wells.
Another approach would be the adoption of a legitimate national energy policy that is comprehensive in scope and science-based, as opposed to the current singular focus on short-term profits.
They also interviewed the owners' veterinarians, and examined the results of water, soil, and air testing as well as the results of laboratory tests on affected animals and their owners.
These include the pollutants released from new construction and subsequent operation of fracking locations, the increased emissions from transporting oil and gas from the site, and emissions from waste disposal and storage.
The environmental impact of fracking
No quakes were linked to hydraulic fracturing itself. Impacts to local health and ecology are pitted against the national agenda to retain dependence on fossil energy. The researchers conducted interviews with animal owners in six states--Colorado, Louisiana, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Texas--affected by gas drilling. Off-gassing is the evaporation of volatile chemicals at normal atmospheric pressure. Boone Pickens' proposed energy strategy "My town was dying. Email The hydraulic fracturing process poses multiple threats to water supplies. Pollutants increase the production and long-term lingering of smog, which decreases the availability of clean air for workers and local residents. The spector of climate change makes the acclerated pursuit of carbon based fuel an irrational policy predicted to be far more expensive than the initial costs required to switch to clean energy technologies.
Earthquakes were reported in areas where there had previously been no recorded earthquakes. The frack fluid pits are larger and contain toxic fracking fluid. Climatic Change Letters.
That number could rise to 3 million by Horton, S. The authors propose careful geologic study of those areas where wastewater injection occurs, since it is believed by geologists that the millions of gallons of fluids forced underground at high pressure can trigger earthquakes.
Under more stringent GHG targets these technologies are needed, but the shale gas delays their market role by up to two decades.
based on 12 review